|This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).|
|Species Type||Big Cat|
|Lifespan||In Captivity: 11-17 years|
|Average Height||Shoulder: 50 to 55 cm (20 to 22 in)|
|Average Weight||11.5 and 23 kg (25 and 51 lb)|
|Average Length||Female: Body -- 68.6 to 94 cm (27.0 to 37.0 in), Tail -- 61 to 82 cm (24 to 32 in)|
Male: Body -- 81 to 108 cm (32 to 43 in), Tail -- 74 to 91 cm (29 to 36 in)
|Predators||Hog Deer, Slow Loris, Brush-tailed Porcupine, Malayan Pangolin, Indochinese Ground Squirrel, Barking Deer and pheasants|
N. n. brachyura: Extinct
The clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa) is a cat found from the Himalayan foothills through mainland Southeast Asia into China. It is notably considered to form a sort of "missing link" between the big and small cats. It was recently decided that a population inhabiting Sumatra and Borneo known as the Sunda Clouded Leopard is a distinct species.
The fur of clouded leopards is of a dark gray or ochreous ground-color, often largely obliterated by black and dark dusky-gray blotched pattern. There are black spots on the head, and the ears are black. Partly fused or broken-up stripes run from the corner of the eyes over the cheek, from the corner of the mouth to the neck, and along the nape to the shoulders. Elongated blotches continue down the spine and form a single median stripe on the loins. Two large blotches of dark dusky-gray hair on the side of the shoulders are each emphasized posteriorly by a dark stripe, which passes on to the foreleg and breaks up into irregular spots. The flanks are marked by dark dusky-gray irregular blotches bordered behind by long, oblique, irregularly curved or looped stripes. These blotches yielding the clouded pattern suggest the English name of the cat. The underparts and legs are spotted, and the tail is marked by large, irregular, paired spots. Females are slightly smaller than males.
Their irises are usually either grayish-green or brownish-yellow in color. Their legs are short and stout, with broad paws. They have rather short limbs compared to the other big cats, but their hind limbs are longer than their front limbs to allow for increased jumping and leaping capabilities. Their ulnae and radii are not fused, which also contributes to a greater range of motion when climbing trees and stalking prey.
Melanistic clouded leopards are uncommon. Clouded leopards weigh between 11.5 and 23 kg (25 and 51 lb). Females vary in head-to-body length from 68.6 to 94 cm (27.0 to 37.0 in), with a tail 61 to 82 cm (24 to 32 in) long. Males are larger at 81 to 108 cm (32 to 43 in) with a tail 74 to 91 cm (29 to 36 in) long. Their shoulder height varies from 50 to 55 cm (20 to 22 in).
They have exceptionally long, piercing canine teeth, the upper being about three times as long as the basal width of the socket. The upper pair of canines may measure 4 cm (1.6 in) or longer. They are often referred to as a “modern-day saber tooth” because they have the largest canines in proportion to their body size, matching the tiger in canine length. The first premolar is usually absent, and they also have a very distinct long and slim skull with well-developed occipital and sagittal crests to support the enlarged jaw muscles.
Distribution and habitatEdit
Clouded leopards occur from the Himalayan foothills in Nepal and India to Myanmar, Bhutan, Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Indochina]], and in China south of the Yangtze River. Some are found in the mixed-evergreen forests of the northeastern and southeastern parts of Bangladesh. They are regionally extinct in Taiwan. Clouded leopards prefer open- or closed-forest habitats to other habitat types. They have been reported from relatively open, dry tropical forest in Myanmar and in Thailand.
In India, they occur in northern West Bengal, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, and Tripura. In Assam they were observed in forests but have not been recorded in protected areas. In the Himalayas, they were camera-trapped at altitudes of 2,500–3,720 m (8,200–12,200 ft).
Clouded leopards were thought to be extinct in Nepal since the late 1860s. But in 1987 and 1988, four individuals were found in the central part of the country, close to Chitwan National Park and in the Pokhara Valley. These findings extended their known range westward, suggesting they are able to survive and breed in degraded woodlands that previously harbored moist subtropical semideciduous forest. Since then, individuals were recorded in the Shivapuri Nagarjun National Park and in the Annapurna Conservation Area.
Distribution of subspeciesEdit
At present, these three subspecies of Neofelis nebulosa are recognized:
- N. n. nebulosa (Griffith, 1821) — lives in Southern China to eastern Myanmar;
- N. n. macrosceloides (Hodgson, 1853) — lives in Nepal to Myanmar;
- N. n. brachyura (Swinhoe, 1862) — used to live in Taiwan, and is considered extinct since the early 1990s. The last confirmed record dates to 1989, when the skin of a young individual was found in the Taroko area. It was not recorded during an extensive camera trapping survey from 2000 to 2004 in southern Taiwan.
Ecology and behaviorEdit
Clouded leopards are the most talented climbers among the cats. In captivity, they have been observed to climb down vertical tree trunks head first, and hang on to branches with their hind paws bent around branchings of tree limbs. They are capable of supination and can even hang down from branches only by bending their hind paws and their tail around them. When jumping down, they keep hanging on to a branch this way until the very last moment. They can climb on horizontal branches with their back to the ground, and in this position make short jumps forward. When balancing on thin branches, they use their long tails to steer. They can easily jump up to 1.2 m (3.9 ft) high.
Clouded leopards have been observed to scent mark in captivity by urine-spraying and head-rubbing on prominent objects. Presumably such habits are used to mark their territory in the wild, although the size of their home ranges is unknown. Like other big cats, they do not appear able to purr, but they otherwise have a wide range of vocalizations, including mewing, hissing, growling, moaning, and snorting. When communicating, two individuals will emit low snorting sounds that are called prusten when approaching each other in a friendly manner. They also use long-call communication used over large distances, which could either be a type of mating call between different territories or a warning call to other cats encroaching on other territories. Apart from information stemming from observations of captive clouded leopards, little is known of their natural history and behavior in the wild. Early accounts depict them as rare, secretive, arboreal, and nocturnal denizens of dense primary forest. More recent observations suggest they may not be as arboreal and nocturnal as previously thought. They may use trees as daytime rest sites, but also spend a significant proportion of time on the ground. Some daytime movement has been observed, suggesting they are not strictly nocturnal but crepuscular. However, the time of day when they are active depends on their prey and the level of human disturbance.
They live a solitary lifestyle, resting in trees during the day and hunting at night. When hunting, clouded leopards either come down from their perches in the trees and stalk their prey or lie and wait for the prey to come to them. After making a kill and eating, they usually retreat to the trees to digest and rest.
Their partly nocturnal and far-ranging behavior, their low densities, and because they inhabit densely vegetated habitats and remote areas makes the counting and monitoring of clouded leopards extremely difficult. Consequently, little is known about their behavior and status.
Home ranges have only been estimated in Thailand:
- Four individuals were radio-collared in Phu Khieo Wildlife Sanctuary from April 2000 to February 2003. Home ranges of two females were 25.7 km2 (9.9 sq mi) and 22.9 km2 (8.8 sq mi), and of two males 29.7 km2 (11.5 sq mi) and 49.1 km2 (19.0 sq mi).
- Two individuals were radio-collared during a study from 1997 to 1999 in the Khao Yai National Park. The home range of one female was 39.4 km2 (15.2 sq mi), of the one male 42 km2 (16 sq mi). Both individuals had a core area of 2.9 km2 (1.1 sq mi).
Little is known of the diet of clouded leopards. Their prey includes both arboreal and terrestrial vertebrates. Pocock presumed they are adapted for preying upon herbivorous mammals of considerable bulk because of their powerful build and the deep penetration of their bites, attested by their long canines. Confirmed prey species include hog deer, slow loris, brush-tailed porcupine, Malayan pangolin and Indochinese ground squirrel. Known prey species in China include barking deer and pheasants. Captive clouded leopards also eat eggs and some vegetation.
Both males and females average 26 months at first reproduction. Mating usually occurs during December and March. The males tend to be very aggressive during sexual encounters and have been known to bite the female on the neck during courtship, severing her vertebrae. With this in mind, male and female compatibility has been deemed extremely important when attempting breeding in captivity. The pair will meet and mate multiple times over the course of several days. The male grasps the female by the neck and the female responds with vocalization that encourages the male to continue. The male then leaves and is not involved in raising the kittens. Estrus last 6 days on average, estrous cycle averages 30 days. After a gestation period of 93 ± 6 days, females give birth to a litter of one to five, most often three cubs.
Initially, the young are blind and helpless, much like the young of many other cats, and weigh from 140 to 280 g (4.9 to 9.9 oz). Unlike adults, the kittens' spots are "solid" — completely dark rather than dark rings. The young can see within about 10 days of birth, are active within five weeks, and are fully weaned at around three months of age. They attain the adult coat pattern at around six months, and probably become independent after around 10 months. Females are able to bear one litter each year. The mother is believed to hide her kittens in dense vegetation while she goes to hunt, though little concrete evidence supports this theory, since their lifestyle is so secretive.
In captivity, they have an average lifespan of 11 years. One individual has lived to be almost 17 years old.