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Moths are the ruling species type of the order Lepidoptera, outnumbering their close relatives, the butterflies. They are more ancient than butterflies as well, having evolved roughly 190 million years ago on Earth as opposed to the butterfly's roughly 56 million year old history. While most moths are nocturnal by nature, diurnal and even crepuscular moths are not unheard of.

Although the two related species can be confused for one another, they can usually be distinguished from one another by looking to their antennae: Whereas butterflies have thin antennae usually ending in small balls or clubs, moth antennae are much more varied in appearance but lack the clubbed ends.

In media they are slightly less common than their arguably more beautiful cousins, but are still a very common species type to be found, completely transcending genres and appearing in everything from fantasy to science fiction. Also in media the most common distinguishing trait is that butterflies are depicted as colorful and vibrant and moths are depicted as dull and furry. Japanese media quite often depicts moths as being poisonous and able to sprinkle toxic dust on their foes.

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