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Canada Lynx
Canada Lynx
General Information
Universe Real Life
Classification Lynx canadensis
Species Type Small Cat
Homeworld Earth
Environment Canada
Alaska
Northern United States
Intelligence Non-sapient
Biochemistry Carbon-based lifeform
Biological Information
Lifespan In Captivity: 14 years
In Wild: Unknown
Average Height 48 to 56 cm (19 to 22 in)
Average Weight 8 to 11 kg (18 to 24 lb)
Average Length 80 to 105 cm (31 to 41 in)
Locomotion Quadrupedal
Feeding Behavior Hypercarnivorous
Prey Snowshoe Hare and/or Red Squirrel mixed with supplemental rodents, birds, and deer
Lineage Information
Related Species Puma
Housecat
Cultural Information
Alignment Neutral
Organization Solitary
Sociocultral characteristics
Scientific Taxonomy
Planet Earth
Domain Eukaryota
Kingdom Animalia
Subkingdom Eumetazoa
Infrakingdom Bilateria
Superphylum Deuterostomia
Phylum Chordata
Subphylum Vertebrata
Infraphylum Gnathostomata
Superclass Tetrapoda
Class Mammalia
Order Carnivora
Suborder Feliformia
Family Felidae
Subfamily Felinae
Genus Lynx
Species canadensis
Other Information
Status Least Concern

The Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) or Canadian lynx is a North American mammal of the cat family and a close relative of the Eurasian Lynx (Lynx lynx). However, in some characteristics the Canada lynx is more like the bobcat (Lynx rufus) than the Eurasian Lynx. With the recognized subspecies, it ranges across Canada and into Alaska as well as some parts of the northern United States.

With a dense silvery-brown coat, ruffed face and tufted ears, the Canada lynx resembles the other species of the mid-sized Lynx genus. It is larger than the bobcat, with which it shares parts of its range, and over twice the size of the domestic cat.


PhysiologyEdit

The appearance of the Canada lynx is similar to that of the Eurasian lynx: the dense fur is silvery brown and may bear blackish markings. In summer, its coat takes on a more reddish-brown color. It has a furry ruff which resembles a double-pointed beard, a short tail with a black tip, and long furry tufts on its ears. Its long legs with broad furred feet aid in traveling through deep snow.

It is smaller than its Eurasian cousin, at an average weight of 8 to 11 kg (18 to 24 lb), 80 to 105 cm (31 to 41 in) in length, and a shoulder height of 48 to 56 cm (19 to 22 in). Males are larger than females. Although the species is larger on average than the bobcat, it is less variable in size and the largest bobcat outsize the lynx.

Like all lynx, it has 28 teeth, with four long canines for puncturing and gripping. The lynx can feel where it is biting the prey with its canines because they are heavily laced with nerves. The lynx also has four carnassials that cut the meat into small pieces. In order for the lynx to use its carnassials, it must chew the meat with its head to its side. There are large spaces between the four canines and the rest of the teeth, and a reduced number of premolars, to ensure that the bite goes as deeply as possible into the prey.

Adaptations that lynx have for maneuvering through the deep snow are feet with a large gap between the first and second toes and their big toe set at a wide angle which gives them a better vice-like grip on the snow.


BehaviorEdit

Canada lynxes are secretive and mostly nocturnal animals, although they may be active at any time of day. They shelter in areas of particularly dense forest. In regions where their range overlaps with that of other predators, such as bobcats and [[{category:Coyotes|coyotes]], they tend to hunt in areas with deeper snow cover, or at higher altitudes. These cats tend to stay within 100 yards (91 m) of the treeline, but do not shy away from swimming. One account records a lynx swimming two miles across the Yukon River.

Although normally solitary, at times small groups may be observed traveling together. The lynx roam about 1.5 to 3 mi (2.4 to 4.8 km) each day, and thus require a large territory. Typical home ranges are between 15 and 50 km2 (5.8 and 19.3 sq mi), but are highly variable, with extremes from 3 to 783 km2 (1.2 to 302.3 sq mi) having been reported. When food becomes scarce, the lynx territory will increase; most of the population will roam far, with a select few staying behind in their original territory.

Like other cats, Canada lynx use scent marking to indicate their territory. Adults typically deposit feces on top of the snow or on tree stumps and other prominent sites and frequently spray urine to mark their range. They also use visual marks on trees.


Hunting and dietEdit

Canada lynx feed predominantly on snowshoe hares, which typically comprise 60% to 97% of their diet; as a result, the size of the lynx population tends to run parallel to the 10 year long rise and decline of hare's numbers. However, especially in summer, they will also eat rodents and birds, and sometimes hunt larger prey such as deer. Like many cats, they will eat carrion when it is available. In Colorado the red squirrel is an important secondary food source when snowshoe hares are scarce.

Canada lynx use their large ears and eyes to seek out prey. They will hunt every one to two days and consume around 600 to 1,200 g (1.3 to 2.6 lb) of food per day. They hunt both by ambush and by actively seeking out prey, varying their tactics depending on the terrain and relative abundance of prey species. Lynx do not have stamina; whilst they are fast over short distances, they lack the ability to maintain their speed for more than a few dozen feet. If the lynx does not catch its prey within the first few seconds, it will generally give up the chase to conserve energy.

If the lynx kills or scavenges a larger animal that it cannot consume all in one sitting, it will drag it to a hiding area such as a bush or under a rock and then will cover the dead animal with leaves and return to consume it later. Such behavior is particularly common when prey is abundant. If food is scarce and the lynx comes upon a large number of prey, it may go on a spree, killing as many prey as possible, then storing the kills.

Although Canada lynx are typically solitary hunters, females and cubs have been seen to hunt together in coordinated attacks. One lynx will scare the prey out of the hiding place, while the others are ready to attack a short distance away.

Other animals use the lynx to hunt as well. The Great Horned Owl will station itself above the lynx and wait for the lynx to flush the prey out of its hiding place. The owl will then attack and capture the prey before the lynx can get to it.


Reproduction and life cycleEdit

The breeding season in Canada lynx lasts only for a month, ranging from March to May, depending on the local climate. Females come into estrus only once during this period, lasting for three to five days. The female attracts a mate by leaving some of her urine where the male has marked his territory, and by repeated calling. Mating can occur six times in one hour. The female lynx will only mate with one male each season, but the male may mate with multiple females.

Gestation lasts around 64 days, so that the young are born in May or early June. Before birth, the female prepares a maternal den, usually in very thick brush, and typically inside thickets of shrubs or trees or woody debris. The dens are generally situated mid-slope and face south or southwest.

Litters contain from one to four cubs, and tend to be much larger when prey is abundant. This suggests a greater degree of reproductive flexibility than in other cats, and females often do not mate at all when prey is scarce. When cubs are born in lean years, however, infant mortality may be as high as 95%.

Canada lynx cubs weigh from 175 to 235 g (6.2 to 8.3 oz) at birth, and initially have greyish buff fur with black markings. They are blind and helpless for the first fourteen days, and weaned at twelve weeks (3 months). When their eyes open, they are a bright blue color, but as they mature, the eyes become a brown-hazel color. The mother brings the food to her cubs and allows them to play with it before eating it, thus training their hunting skills.

Cubs leave the den after about five weeks, and begin hunting at between seven and nine months of age. They leave the mother at around ten months, as the next breeding season begins, but do not reach the full adult size until around two years old. Female reach sexual maturity at ten months, although they often delay breeding for another year, while males reach maturity at two or three years. Canada lynx have been reported to live for up to fourteen years in captivity, although the lifespan is likely much shorter in the wild.


Distribution and habitatEdit

The Canada lynx is found in northern forests across almost all of Canada and Alaska. It is, however, absent in the relatively treeless regions of the Great Plains and the northern coasts, which are outside the natural range of the snowshoe hare. Due to human activity, the Canada lynx is no longer found in Prince Edward Island or on the mainland of Nova Scotia, although there are two known areas of Canada lynx populations in the Cape Breton Highlands.

In addition there are large populations of this lynx in Montana, Idaho, Washington, and Oregon and a resident population exists in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming that extends into the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. The Canada lynx is rare in Utah, Minnesota, and New England. The Canada lynx is a threatened species in the contiguous United States. It is also found in the Medicine Bow National Forest in Wyoming.

Although a Canada lynx was shot and killed in 1903 near Newton Abbott, United Kingdom, it is believed to have simply been an escaped or released pet or traveling menagerie exhibit. Even so, it is believed to have existed for some time in the wild as an alien [small] cat, which may afford it the time needed to have begun a small breeding population.

While formerly extinct in Colorado, wild lynx were reintroduced in 1999. While initially successful, poachers diminished the numbers in 2007. By 2010 however the reintroduction was deemed a success.

Isolated individual lynx have wandered widely from the core area in the Southern Rockies where they were reintroduced resulting in observation of lynx introduced in Colorado as far away as Iowa, northern Idaho, and eastern Nevada.

Cycle of lynx abundanceEdit

In the northern parts of Canada, its population can be estimated from the records kept from the number caught each year for its fur. Records have been kept by the Hudson's Bay Company and Canadian government since the 1730s. A graph of its abundance is characterized by huge rises and falls with the peaks occurring at a level typically ten times higher than the troughs and about 5 years after them, and the process then reversing itself.

This lynx is a specialist predator, eating snowshoe hare almost exclusively when they are available. The population variation of the lynx and the hare is an example of a predator-prey cycle. Environmental factors such as weather and forest plant growth that may affect this population variation have been studied.

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